The role of light in the exhibition
The modern museum display method uses a spatial combination process to reconstruct the exhibit information and research results into a display script based on the visitor's vision. In this process, light connects people and exhibits. Light is the only perspective factor that calibrates the existence of an exhibit. Only by means of light can the exhibit be displayed to visitors. The use of reasonable lighting for lighting is precisely the premise to ensure the realization of this element. Only by designing, selecting and using reasonable lamps to collect light can the purpose of museum display be achieved and realized. Therefore, the use of reasonable and advanced lighting for lighting is the key to the modern museum's ability to display.
Using the relationship between light and light-receiving body, combining aesthetics and human function, designing and installing lamps with reasonable lighting for lighting, so that light, matter and human are organically combined, interacting and interacting with each other to form a harmonious A stable system. Through the light, the object is displayed to the visitors, the person designing the user, according to the characteristics of the object display and the display space, designing and installing the most reasonable lamps for lighting, in order to shape, color, texture and lines of the objects (exhibits) The real artistic features such as mechanism and mechanism can be displayed to create a harmonious display space. Under the illumination of such lamps, people can make a deep impression, so that the exhibition of the museum is more infectious and makes people visit. In the process of getting beautiful enjoyment.
The lamps used in modern museum lighting mainly include: fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, spotlight lamps, slide lamps, astigmatism lamps, lightning effects, and the like. Artificial lighting is the main means of display art application, and it is easy to achieve the coordination between the exhibition atmosphere, the environment and the overall artistic effect. It also facilitates the control of shading, highlights the theme, and attracts the attention of the audience. Artificial lighting can also be used in the display case, and in this way, the damage of the natural light to the cultural relics can be reduced.
In the half-view hall of our museum, a large number of stage lamps were used to make full use of the effects of sound, light and electricity to reproduce the horrific historical picture of the Hailan bubble massacre produced by the Russian military and police in Hailan in 1900. The use of audiovisual techniques truly reproduces the tragedy of the history of the past, deepens the impression of the audience and enhances the appeal.
2The influence of lighting on the exhibition artifacts
In the museum exhibition, the light actually plays the role of an important medium to convey the artistic effect of the exhibits, and is one of the indispensable elements in the entire exhibition display. In addition to using it to reflect the best visual effects, the design, installation and use personnel should also fully respect the particularity of the museum's cultural relics exhibition site, that is, the lighting selection of the lamps must be premised on the protection of cultural relics.
As everyone knows, the cultural relics are extremely demanding on the lighting of lamps. The causes of damage to exhibits are concentrated on radiation, temperature, humidity, and air pollution. The luminescence and thermal effects of lamps and auxiliary equipment affect the collection of cultural relics. Excessive infrared and ultraviolet radiation also affect the preservation of cultural relics. This is especially destructive for such cultural relics such as paper painting, leather, textiles and wood products. .
In some small-scale local museums, due to the lack of sufficient attention to the lighting destructiveness of the lamps, the maintenance and maintenance of the lamps are not too concerned, resulting in premature aging of the lines and fire hazards. In addition, some museums unilaterally emphasize the illuminance of the exhibition or the use of high-infrared incandescent lamps without any filtering measures, or put the exhibits close to the heating lamps or appliances. What's more, in order to save money, the exhibits are exposed to the natural light of strong ultraviolet radiation, and these precious cultural relics are allowed to fade or deteriorate until they are damaged.
3 Types of lamps used in the museum exhibition Chen, selection principles and protective measures for radiation exhibits
3 1 Types of lamps used
With the vigorous development of the museum industry in China, people pay more and more attention to the management of cultural relics collection, and the awareness of scientific protection has been greatly improved. Coupled with a certain number of museums with certain economic strength, therefore, in the practice of exhibitions, the lamps The selection, design, installation and use are also advancing with the times and constantly innovating.
The premise of designing, installing and using lamps for lighting is based on the familiarity. Now we will introduce the following lamps and different performances used in the half-painting gallery and exhibition hall of our museum.
(1) Slide lights. The WXP6 turntable slide is composed of a light source, a condensing mirror and an objective lens. The use of the unit to produce transparent original film (glass film, film or plexiglass), draw a variety of patterns and insert a fixed film that fits the pattern, which can project active clouds, fireworks and water on the stage canopy. When the waves and other images are used for performances or exhibitions, the projection slides can add a plot atmosphere and highlight the artistic effects.
It has the advantages of long service life and convenient maintenance. The disadvantages are large volume, high operating cost, large heat generation and high initial cost. Basic parameters and optical performance see 1.
1 slide lamp basic parameters and optical performance dimensions / mm optical performance (reference value) source power LBH distance / m height / m real image diameter / m center illumination / LX voltage / V power / kW weight / kg 450 630 795 3 5 200 220 1 14 5 ( 2) Spotlights. W JG series of lenses are four-ring rib mirrors, which have the advantages of light weight, large illuminance when astigmatism, effective light, large range, long concentrating effect, and different angles according to the needs of use. Disadvantages are high operating costs, high heat generation, high initial cost, and changes in the intensity of light require dimming master control equipment.
Basic parameters and optical performance see 2.
2 concentrating lamps basic parameters and optical performance dimensions / mm lamp bow bolt LBH length / mm thread diameter power plug model light source power voltage / V power / kW weight / kg 400 365 340 100 M14 DCT 1 220 1 5. 7 accessories models and Specifications Dimensional optical performance (reference value) with bulb condenser lens distance / m beam condition center illumination spot diameter JGF220- 1000 / mm form 150 thread mirror 8 astigmatism 800 1 800 4 1. 5
(3) Lightning effect. The styling piece of the WGS3 lightning effect is composed of a fixed circular piece such as a lightning shape and a circular hole of a certain arrangement on a moving piece. When the button is pressed, the motor is driven to rotate the rotating piece due to the limited position switch. Only one lightning strike occurs for each rotation. After projection and slide projection, it can present a fleeting lightning image on the stage skylight. If it can match the lightning strike effect, there will be a flashing, thunderous natural scenery. Feel. The utility model has the advantages that the formed lightning effect is realistic, the artistic effect is strong, the service life is long, the action time is short, the running cost is low, etc., and the disadvantage is that the volume is large, the initial cost is high, and it is suitable for use in a large theater, a panoramic painting hall and a half-view painting hall, and A matching auxiliary device is required.
(4) Incandescent lamps. It is divided into ordinary incandescent lamps, incandescent lamps with mirrors, incandescent lamps with parabolic aluminum reflection, and tungsten halogen lamps. Ordinary incandescent lamps can produce direct light, and the price is low. It is generally used for lighting in special occasions of museums. The incandescent lamps with mirrors have soft light, long life and relatively low price, so they are widely used in large-area lighting; with parabolic aluminum Reflective incandescent lamps have a narrower beam than a mirrored luminaire, and their lifetime is comparable to the former, but at a slightly higher price. These two types of luminaires are heavy, so they should not be installed on glass showcases and fragile exhibits; low-voltage halogen lamps are also a kind of reflector lamps, which have the disadvantage of requiring transformers; tungsten halogen lamps, as an incandescent lamp, light High efficiency, long life, but more heat, higher price, and more UV radiation and difficult to add filters, so the lamp type can be used in places where metal or stone exhibits require strong illumination. .
(5) Fluorescent lamps. There are mainly energy-saving lamps and three-color fluorescent lamps.
The advantages are: low energy consumption and high efficiency; low operating cost, low heat generation; wide color range, good color rendering; long life, thus reducing maintenance costs; but there are also several disadvantages: due to the need Auxiliary equipment (such as ballasts) make the initial cost higher; sensitive to temperature and humidity; there is radio frequency interference. Fluorescent lamps, as a kind of soft light fixture, belong to linear illuminators, so it is not suitable for such three-dimensional exhibits to form highlights and shadows.
(6) High-intensity gas discharge lamps. There are mainly high-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps and emerging ceramic metal halide lamps. High-pressure sodium lamps are characterized by excellent color rendering, long life and lumen maintenance. The disadvantages are low color temperature, generally warm yellow, which can be used for floodlighting in the exhibition area. Metal halide lamps have high luminous efficiency and color development. Good performance, long life, small size, etc., but the price is relatively expensive, can only be used for floodlighting in the exhibition area; ceramic metal halide lamps, is a new type of lamps, widely used in urban night lighting, used for museums It is not common, because it has good color rendering, and it restores vivid colors. The function of preventing ultraviolet radiation is more effective and stable. The light color can create a space environment with uniform color and uniform brightness. The growth of service life can be effectively This type of luminaire was used in the Nibchu Treaty signing scene in order to reduce maintenance costs and therefore save costs and achieve good light efficiency.
However, these high-intensity gas discharge lamps are relatively expensive, and require auxiliary equipment (ballasts) and are relatively large in size, and have less power to use. Therefore, they are generally used for exhibits that are not sensitive to light in the exhibition hall corridor. . See the comparison of visible light intensity and performance of several common lamps.
3 Visible intensity and performance comparison of common lamps luminaires UV infrared color temperature / K color rendering incandescent, halogen tungsten lamps, high 2 800 3 200 100 fluorescent high pressure mercury lamps, high and low 4 100 general high pressure sodium lamps, very low, 1 950/2 200/2 500 23/60/83 metal halide lamps are relatively high at 3 000/4 500/5 600 65 92
3 2 selection principle of lamps
(1) The heat generated by the light source of the lamp should be as small as possible. (2) All the lighting with radiation lamps should be added with filters. (3) The total exposure should be limited to the minimum range, if the continuous exposure for the exhibits its illumination should not exceed 50 LX.
(4) The color rendering of light should be moderate, according to the CIE-UCS color system standard.
The color index of museum exhibits must be at least 90. (5) The lighting and color temperature environment around the exhibits should be reasonable, according to the ICOM recommended standards. For light-insensitive exhibits, the color temperature of the lamps should be between 400 6 500 K (natural light or cold light); for light-sensitive exhibits, the color temperature should be around 4 000 K (natural light); for light-sensitive exhibits, the color temperature should be 2 Below 900 K (warm light). (6) When the audience watches the exhibits, it should prevent glare on the screen. (7) Painting exhibits should have a certain degree of illumination and uniformity on the screen. For three-dimensional exhibits, the lighting should highlight the three-dimensionality. (8) The overall illumination of the museum should be moderate. The illuminance of the exhibits and the lighting of the halls must also have an appropriate proportional relationship. According to the C IE recommendation, the standard is 1.
It is not difficult to see that the lighting requirements of the exhibits for the lamps are quite high. It is not easy to do the above-mentioned points in the actual design, installation and use work, because the design points are usually not placed. In the selection of lamps, it will not put too much capital into the selection of lamps, especially for some temporary exhibitions. The lighting of the exhibits is considered less and less, which is undoubtedly the protection of precious cultural relics. unfavorable.
3 3 For the thermal effects of radiant heat on exhibits, the following measures are generally used to protect exhibits
(1) Use a cold mirror or an infrared reflective film to reduce the infrared radiation of the luminaire.
(2) Use lighting with less infrared radiation as much as possible, such as high color rendering fluorescent lamps.
(3) Reduce the illumination level and reduce the illumination time of the fixture under the condition of ensuring normal vision.
With the rapid development of science and technology, new and updated lamps that are more suitable for the special requirements of museums will continue to emerge. Together with the universal application of modern network technology, we will also understand and master the performance of new lamps in the first time, as long as they pay attention to them. And it can be used in time, and those invaluable treasures that will make the audience linger and amazed will also bloom longer.
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